Pulsus Group, with its international reputation is contributing its services to the scientific world by organizing more than 600 Plus International Conferences across the world. With the overwhelming success of previous annual Applies Microbiology Conference, ConferenceSeries Ltd officially welcomes entire scientific community to attend the , during Sep 28-29, 2017 at Atlanta, USA.
Antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth. The Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi.. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal, while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis. The main classes of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants. Antiseptics (which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery), and antibiotics (which destroy microorganisms within the body). The term "antibiotic" originally described only those formulations derived from living organisms but is now also applied to synthetic antimicrobials, such as the sulphonamides, or fluoroquinolones. Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses. Antiparasitics are a class of medications indicated for the treatment of infection by parasites, such as nematodes, trematodes, infectious protozoa, and amoebae. Like antifungals, they must kill the infecting pest without serious damage to the host.
Contamination control is the generic term for all activities aiming to control the existence, growth and proliferation of contamination in certain areas. Contamination control may refer to the atmosphere as well as to surfaces, to particulate matter as well as to microbes and to contamination prevention as well as to decontamination. The aim of all contamination control activities is to permanently ensure a sufficient level of cleanliness in controlled environments. One of the most common environments that incorporates contamination control into its standards protocol is the cleanroom . Contamination control is also an important asset for industrial laboratories in the pharmaceutical and life science sectors. Other places of use include automotive paint shops, entrances to industrial kitchens and food service providers, many manufacturing areas, and electronic component assembly areas. Beside particulate matter such as ions and molecules, the most common types of contamination are: People- Hair, fibre particles from bodies and clothes also poor hygiene Environment- Dust particles, contaminated air, work surfaces, gases, movement ceilings, walls and floors Materials- Micro organisms on packaging, packaging also creates particles , fibres , dust. Equipment- Moving parts shavings drive belts. Buildings- Paint flaking, rusty pipe work , poorly maintained surfaces. Water- Micro organisms grow in water. equipment not cleaned correctly left in a damp condition, spills not mopped up properly etc. Many types organisms are potentially detrimental to processes in a critical environment.
The Microbiological testing of Non sterile products contains supplemental information for the quantitative enumeration of viable microorganisms and the determination of the absence of specified microorganisms in finished pharmaceutical products and raw materials, commonly called as Microbial Limits Testing (MLT). Methods for enumeration of microorganisms from pharmaceuticals (as described in USP) include membrane filtration, conventional plate count (including pour-plate method, surface spread method), and the Most-Probable-Number (MPN). Products which are insoluble or immiscible in water must be appropriately treated to obtain a suspension suitable for the test procedures. The sterility testing involves the method suitability test this test is used to determine the bacteriostatic and fungi static has been retained on the filter membrane. Regarding the media the cultivation of the test organisms, select agar medium that is favourable to the rigorous growth of the respective stock culture. The recommended media are Soybean Casein Digest Agar/Broth and Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar/Broth. Add a suitable in activator (neutralizer) for the specific antimicrobial properties in the product to the broth and/or agar media used for the test procedure if required.
Environmental monitoring is a survillenance system for microbiological control of clean rooms and other controlled environments .It is a process which provides monitoring testing and feedback to the microbiological quality levels in aseptic environments .The sources of contamination due to environment is personnel ,equipment and cleaning agents ,containers ,water and compressed gases The main aspect in drug preparation is Environmental monitoring in which contamination is caused due to microorganisms .The materials /equipments used are for example sterile Dacron or cotton swab with a sterile transport media solution .The sample preparation can be done by sample equipment controls and by EM sampling procedure . In the Environment monitoring sites the facility and the equipment should be sampled during a ready-to-use state as determined by the firm. The presence of disinfectant on the swab may reduce the microbial bioburden or increase inhibition during broth incubation. The information on the quality of aseptic processing environment during manufacturing and prevents the release of potentially contaminated batch if appropriate standards are not fulfilled .
Microbial Contamination refers to the non-intended or accidental introduction of infectious material like bacteria, yeast, mould, fungi, virus, prions, protozoa or their toxins and by-products. The sources of microbial contamination includes equipment, process operations, raw materials, column resins, filter membranes, water, process gases, and personnel. All sources of microbial contamination should be considered when developing a microbial control strategy and performing an investigation for a microbial contamination deviation. Modern laboratories are busy environments with personnel sharing equipment across overlapping workstations that may be near high-traffic areas and busy instruments. The prevention of microbial contamination can be done by Practicing good aseptic technique is critical to maintaining the purity of cell cultures as well as a safe lab environment. Some of the most basic laboratory procedures are the most important, including using proper aseptic technique, wearing clean lab coats and washing hands in order to reduce the risk of introducing microorganisms into mammalian cell cultures. Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments provide the control of contamination (inert particles and microbiological entities) to levels appropriate for accomplishing contamination-sensitive activities. Products and processes that benefit from the control of contamination include those in such industries as aerospace, electronics, food and beverages, cosmetics, general healthcare, and medical devices and pharmaceutical products requiring a variety of clean environments. Environmental Monitoring (EM), particularly in Pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities where the risk of microbial contamination is controlled through aseptic processing, comprises both physical and microbiological test methods.
Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems’. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. Waterborne pathogens have appeared in ontaminated water, increase in sensitive population, changes in drinking water treatment technology, globalization of commerce and travel, and by the development of molecular methods for detection and source tracking . The protozoa Microsporidia, as the bacteria Mycobacterium avium intracellulare, Helicobacter pylori,Tsukamurella, Cystoisospora belli and viruses such as adenoviruses, parvoviruses, coronaviruses (SARS), and polyomavirus are some examples of the emerging potential waterborne pathogens .The most importantly used methods for water borne Pathogens are Polymerase chain reaction, Oligonucleotide DNA Microarrays, pyro sequencing, Immunology based methods and biosensor based methods .
Disinfection is defined as destruction of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins or vectors by direct exposure to chemical or physical agents. General Disinfectants used in Pharmaceutical industry include alcohols, chlorine and chlorine compounds, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthalaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, iodophors, peracetic acid, phenolic and quaternary ammonium compounds. Sterilization is the process of killing all forms of microbial life in or on the given object or preparation. Microbiologically, sterile material is one that contains no living organisms at all and the term sterile is therefore an absolute one. According to WHO, sterilization is process of complete destruction or removal of all microorganisms (including spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa) that could contaminate pharmaceuticals or other materials and thereby constitute a health hazard. Sterilization refers to the complete destruction or elimination of all viable organisms in or on a substance being sterilized. Types of sterilization include: Physical (Moist Heat & Dry Heat), chemical and radiation.
Microbiology is the biological science involved with the study of Microscopic organisms. Microbiology is made up of several sub- disciplines including bacteriology (study of bacteria), Mycology (the study of fungi), Phycology (the study of algae), Parasitology (the study of Parasites) etc. These broad areas enclosed a number of specific fields .These fields includes Immunology. Pathogenic Microbiology and Food Microbiology .The relevant part of microbiology is the pharmaceutical microbiology, an applied branch of microbiology (Part of Industrial microbiology). Pharmaceutical microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals .In this they use microorganisms to help to produce microorganisms or with controlling the numbers in a process environment. This mainly concerned about the ensuring that the finished product is either sterile or free from those specific strains. The Pharmaceutical Microbiologists are mostly interested in the toxins particularly the ‘’vestiges ‘’ of microorganisms are absent from products. Microbiological Contamination mostly causes many problems in the preparation of pharmaceuticals .According to the risk assessment terminology this topic mainly deals with the product contamination arising understanding the severity of such contaminations various ways have been employed to minimize the contamination and developing new methods to detect the contamination . . Microbiological Contamination of sterilie injectable products is the greatest risk of contamination which leads to death of patients. The foundation of Pharmaceutical Microbiology is the culture media these are growth factors are designed to cultivate and grow bacteria and fungi.
The most important contribution of microbiology to the pharmaceutical industry is the development of antibiotics. All antibiotics were originally the products of microbial metabolism; The recent genetic manipulations have enabled the production of more enhanced drugs. Vaccines are also a very important contribution of microbiology towards development of drugs. The production of vaccines against bacterial diseases usually requires the growth of large amounts of bacteria. Steroids can also be obtained from microorganisms. Apart from drugs and bio products development, microbiology contributes towards quality control of a pharmaceutical laboratory. Prevention of microbial contamination of drugs, injectable, eye drops, nasal solutions and inhalation products is undertaken following the pharmacopeial guidelines. Growth promotion tests establish the potential of any media to support growth when the inoculum contains a small number of microorganisms. Microbial limit testing and sterility testing are used to identify the microbial load of the product.. Bioburden is the total number of microorganisms present on a product prior to sterilisation. Water is one of the major commodities consumed by the pharmaceutical industry. Total viable count is studied to rule out microbial contamination.
The global Pharmaceutical microbiology market is valued at $6,727.29 million in 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 13.03% between 2014 and 2019. Increasing disease burden of infectious diseases and increased funding forhealthcare expenditure are the important growth drivers for this market during the forecast period. The pharmaceuticals application segment accounted for the largest share of the microbiology market in 2014, while the food application segment is expected grow at the highest CAGR between 2014 and 2019 in the global microbiology market. The pharmaceutical microbiology market is segmented on the basis of products into consumables and instruments. The consumables product segment is further sub segmented into kits and reagents. The instruments segment is sub segmented into automated microbiology instruments, laboratory instruments, andmicrobiology analyzers. The automated microbiology instruments are expected to grow at the highest growth rate in the instruments segment. The incubators are expected to grow at the highest growth rate in the laboratory instruments market. Mass spectrometers, are expected to grow at the highest growth rate in the microbiology analyzers segment. In the consumables segment kits are expected to account for the largest share and expected to grow at the highest growth rate during the forecast period. The respiratory diseases segment accounted for the largest share of the clinical microbiology market in 2014. This application segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR between 2014 and 2019 in the pharmaceutical microbiology market. The geographic analysis revealed that North America accounted for the largest share of the global pharmaceutical microbiology market in 2014. The Asian regional segment, on the other hand, is expected to register a double-digit growth rate from 2014 to 2019, owing to the increased healthcare spending in this region.
MAJOR INDUSTRIES IN THE MARKET INCLUDE :
Evolution Of Microbial Market :
Biomicrobial market has been used successfully to explain cooperative behavior in many animal species. Microbes also engage in cooperative behaviors, both with hosts and other microbes, that can be described in economic terms. However, a market approach is not traditionally used to analyze these interactions. Here, extending the biological market framework to ask whether this theory is of use to evolutionary biologists studying microbes. Considering six economic strategies used by microbes to optimize their success in markets. An economic market framework is a useful tool to generate specific and interesting predictions about microbial interactions, including the evolution of partner discrimination, hoarding strategies, specialized versus diversified mutualistic services, and the role of spatial structures, such as flocks and consortia. There is untapped potential for studying the evolutionary dynamics of microbial systems. Market theory can help structure this potential by characterizing strategic investment of microbes across a diversity of conditions.
Biological market theory offers a potentially valuable framework for studying microbial cooperation among species. We predict that its primary contribution will be to generate new experimental questions and hypotheses in the field of social microbiology. Also, applying market theory to microbial mutualisms will be an important test of the robustness of market-based principles as a more general principle of social behavior. We identified six strategies microbes use or benefit from to optimize their success in markets. This list will no doubt grow as researchers uncover new ways in which microbes manipulate trade in their favor. Because they are typically easy to manipulate, microbial markets will be useful systems for testing questions about biological markets in general . These include the evolution of partner choice, responses to price fluctuations, and identification of the market conditions that drive specialization vs. diversification, while simultaneously taking into account the biological context of exchange. In the current era of synthetic biology, a microbial market perspective can increase our understanding of the complex feedbacks among partners and inspire the engineering of novel interactions. This will both drive forward our understanding of microbiology and increase our knowledge of cooperation in general.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology Markets:
Lastly, there is potential applied value in using biological market theory to help identify the conditions under which trade is maximized for particular partners. This could have benefits in agriculture and medicine. In agriculture, natural selection favors microbes that maximize their own fitness and gain of resources over that of their host or competitors. This can conflict with the goals of agriculture or other industries, where humans favor microbes that maximize yields of their crop hosts or other products. Once we have a better understanding of the conditions under which microbes transfer more resources, we can use experimental manipulations to select for microbes offering better market prices to their hosts . Likewise in medicine, an increased understanding of trade by pathogenic microbes might be useful to disrupt these markets and promote host health. Recent work suggests that host partner choice is important in shaping gut micro-biota composition, which has a key role in shaping human and animal health and behaviour.